Note by Note Cuisine

A Modernized Culinary Practice


In order to understand how note by note cuisine came to be, we first must understand the origins it was born from. Note by note cuisine is the modernized practice of molecular gastronomy which is a sub-discipline of food science. Molecular gastronomy studies the science behind the physical and chemical transformation of ingredients as they are when subjected to different cooking methods. In addition to this, this sub-discipline also looks at flavor, texture, perception to taste and how our senses appreciate the new recipes created from this particular type of cooking. With this said, note by note cuisine is a modern style of this sub-discipline which takes constituent chemical compounds as ingredients rather than animal or plant tissues and creates edible food out of them.

History & Facts: How Did Note by Note Cuisine Come to Be?


First and foremost, molecular gastronomy was defined in 1988 as a scientific disciplined that looked at the mechanisms that occurred during both consumption and dish preparation. Essentially, this discipline wanted to look at the differences between the science behind cooking and the technology behind cooking. For instance, raw materials such as plant and animal tissues are transformed through both physical and chemical changes during preparation, most often through thermal processing. However, a raw material such as carrots that are placed in a salad go through an enzyme reaction when they are cut which then gets transferred to the plant tissue and the dressing when put into a salad. By looking at the science behind how food changes when cooked or prepared in combination with technological applications, not only can dishes be improved but out knowledge of new and innovative dishes widens through experimentation.

This brings us to note by note cuisine which was proposed in 1994, first as a way to improve food and secondly as a way to make dishes completely from chemical compounds. This type of cuisine does not use any type of raw materials typically found in dishes such as: fish, vegetables, meat or fruits, but instead uses either pure compounds or mixed compounds to create the shape, taste, odour, texture and nutritional aspects of the food. In 2009, the first note by note dish was revealed by Hubert Maetz and Aline Kuentz. In October 2010, the first note by note dish was served by chefs at the Cordon Bleu School to participates in the courses. In 2011, the dish was served again, first to 150 people by Potel et Chabot Catering Company, and then secondly to 500 chefs in Paris.

What Are the Current Popular Recipes?

Although there hasn’t been a lot released to the public other than through Herve This’ new book: La cuisine note a note, there are some popular recipes that can be made, permitting that the right technological instruments are available to use. It is important to understand that note by note cuisine looks at making food from scratch with chemical compounds which means you will be working with molecules. There have been over forty different dishes including drinks created at the Dublin Institute of Technology. Here are a few types of dishes that you could possibly create and their associated recipes.

• Bubble n’Fizz: Think of this as an extremely lavish dessert dish that comes with the hint of lemon and liquorice. It definitely requires someone to like both lemon and liqourice but do keep in mind that all note by note cooking will never have the “full” flavor effect. It is made out of a combination of different compounds, both pure and mixed and uses quite a few flavouring compounds and acids. In order to create your own version of this delicious dish, you will need access to a siphon, a pacojet and a thermomix. You can check out the various ingredients here for this recipe.

Note by Note Cuisine Recipe

• Roast Dinner With a Twist: This is an extremely complicated dish to make because it has several components to it which all must be made separately. This means that you will be using a mixture of advanced equipment and modern equipment such as non-stick trays and bowls. The roast has both dry and liquid ingredients associated with it as does the potato meringue and the rosemary peals. The final portion of this dish is a lemon potato mash. You can view all recipes for each portion and the compounds used here.


Finally, if you are looking to make something a little more familiar that doesn’t require a whole lot of effort; great for beginners, then take some time to check out the English Tea recipe which can be found here. It has three parts to it like the roast dinner, but uses considerably less in compound ingredients. You will need access to a siphon and an alginate bath though!

Fusion Cuisine History & Facts

Blending The Tastes of a Thousand Regions

Fusion cuisine, although a relatively new term, is more than likely an ancient tradition. However, it was only wildly popularized in the 1970s when several French chefs decided to offer dishes that combined different traditional sub-culture cuisine. For instance, dishes from French food and Asian cuisine were often served together to create new and varied combinations.

Essentially, fusion food is the blending of different culinary dishes, cooking styles and methods to create hybrid cuisine. It requires both creativity and innovation as well as a diverse mindset on what can be combined.

When Did It Become a Movement? History and Facts:


The fusion food movement is often accredited to Wolfgang Puck and Roy Yamaguchi who intentionally combined the flavours of different cultures during the 1970s and 80s. Puck looked at combining Asian foods with European dishes which ended up gaining popularity across the United States. This is where phrases that described dishes, like Pan-Asian and Pan-Pacific came from.

What makes this type of cooking so interesting is that it can make successful and delicious combinations or the chef can simply get it wrong. Undesirable dishes would come from chefs who would haphazardly combine ingredients from different sub-cultures in an attempt to find a taste that was truly unique. Unfortunately, with the boom of the fusion movement, it created a lot of hostility because there were many, many undesirable dishes created. So much so, that many chefs don’t want to be associated with the fusion movement. Now-a-days this movement can be seen under “mash-up” dishes which take distinct food concepts and combine them to make one dish. An example of this would be the “Cronut” which is a donut and a croissant combined.

In most cases, you will see a lot of sub-cultural combination of different Asian dishes mixed with other Asian dishes, or Asian dishes mixed with European dishes. Think the Korean Taco, or Tex-Mex, or Thai-Vietnamese Pacific Rim cuisine. Through cross-cultural pairing, many new meals and delicious foods have been created, allowing us to create a diverse cultural of food preparation and consumption.

Popular and Well Noted Fusion Cuisine Recipes and Dishes:

Since fusion cuisine is incredibly diverse, not every sub-cultural will be represented here but here are some easy to make and popular recipe ideas.

• Vietnamese Sausage Sandwich: this uses the influence of sandwiches from the French and makes a very easy, low key Asian snack. What makes it great is that it is super diverse in that you can swap out ingredients if you have to. For the real thing though, you will need Vietnamese sausage! Check out the recipe here.



Nutella Ice Cream Sandwich: this is considered a dessert and basically takes Asian white bread, Italy’s nutella hazelnut spread and vanilla bean ice cream. The ingredients list for this is extremely simple, you take vanilla ice cream, a piece of Asian bread with nutella spread and plop the ice cream on top and enjoy. Check out the recipe here.


Nutella Ice Cream Sandwich Fusion Cuisine Recipe


• Roasted Squash and Tocino Pizza: this mixes Filipino Tocino which is a sweet flavoured boneless meat with pizza and squash. Pizza originates from Italy and Greece, so the mash-up is between the flatbread of Greece and the pizza dough of Italy and the sweet meat of Filipinos. Check out the recipe here.


Squash Tocino Pizza Fusion Cuisine Recipe

• Avocado Ice Cream Sandwich:
this is a dessert that uses Asian white bread and avocado ice cream. Now this won’t be found in Western markets because avocado ice cream is not readily available, however it can be made at home. The ingredients list is super simple and it can be paired with a milkshake or some other dessert. Check out the recipe here.


 Avocado Ice Cream Sandwich

• Japanese Fish Tacos
: this is as exactly as it sounds. It takes ponzu-wasabi mayo and Pacific albacore (tuna) and mixes it with tacos. It is rather easy to make and the ponzu can be found in any grocery store that sells Asian food. Check out the recipe here.


Japanese Tacos Fusion Cuisine
If you plan on looking for delicious fusion dishes, definitely check out the following sub-cultures: Pan-Asian, Indo-European, Tex-Mex, and Anglo-Indian cuisine.

Haute Cuisine Definition History Facts & Recipes

Haute cuisine is known for its appearance as what is considered “high-level” establishments due to its careful presentation, high price point and meticulous preparation. It is characterized by the fact that it will always have elaborate presentations and will always be served with expensive beverages such as wines and served in small sizes across several courses in one sitting. It bloomed in the 17th century as a sophisticated way of cooking that is marked by the enjoyment that comes with consuming the taste, flavour and presentation of each dish. It is a form of art that aims to provide an exquisite experience to every dining consumer.

The Rich History of Culinary Transformation – Historical Facts

Interestingly enough, up until Francois Pierre La Varenne started practising the culinary arts during the 17th century, French cuisine consisted of meals that were served in large portions. However, this traditional dining experience was turned upside down when La Varenne introduced this new style of cooking. Haute focuses on providing moderate (often considered smaller) portions of food with high quality ingredients served with luxuriant designs in mind.

After the French Revolution, 1789-1799, Marie-Antoine Careme adopted the idea of haute cuisine but specialized in making rich and extravagant mother sauces rather than exquisite whole dishes. His signature sauces, those being the bechamel, espagnole, veloute and allemande were often served to the wealthy since he catered as a private chef. He is considered to be the founder of French gastronomy, is known for his elaborate centrepieces and produced hundreds of sauces throughout his career. His sauces set the ground stage for Auguste Escoffier.

Auguste Escoffier went on to modernize the culinary practices of those who came before him in order to make the dish preparation more efficient during the 20th century. This included the system that we now know as preparation tables or station areas within the kitchen. This “brigade” system was used in order to keep the chefs at their own cooking areas so that the dishes could be prepared in an efficient manner. He is known as the master of cooking who authored over 5,000 recipes which were put into eight books. He was a forward thinker in that he supported local agriculture and only used food that was in season.

Popular Recipes in Haute Cuisine


There are plenty of hearty and heavy French foods, but here are two popular dishes that are associated with haute cuisine via the legendary Daniele Mazet-Delpeuch:

Saint Honore: this is a dessert pastry that has a crisp butter filled pastry crust with vanilla bean creme patisserie on top. In addition to the creme patisserie, there are three choux balls that are dipped in toffee and filled with creme patisserie and toffee. Check out the recipe here.
st Honore de Paris Dessert Haute Cuisine
Foie Gras Au Torchon: is a delicacy that is made out of the liver of ducks (or geese), pepper, sugar and kosher salt. Sodium nitrate, milk and cognac or sauternes are optional ingredients. It is traditionally wrapped in a dish towel and placed in the fridge after preparation, however cheese cloth is now used. Check out a recipe here.


Foie Gras Recipe Haute Cuisine

Although haute cuisine is considered “high-cooking” of exquisite meals, this doesn’t mean that there aren’t kid friendly recipes out there or other haute cuisine options to choose from. A lot of the recipes that you can find are relatively simple to create. If you go with the traditional French cooking route, the dishes will be more complicated but will provide a unique and fine-dining experience.

Jewish Cuisine Facts and History

 The Laws That Make Jewish Cuisine Unique


When we think about the traditional Jewish cuisine menu, we’re intrigued by how unique some of the dishes are. However, the traditional cuisine is, like other cultures, a blend of many different cultures that have come together.


The reason why Jewish cuisine stands out as so distinct against other cultures is due to the rules and laws that are followed with meal preparation. For instance, Jewish individuals who follow their Torah do not eat any type of insect or non-kosher food.

Basically, any food that hasn’t been properly bled out or killed according to the Torah is considered non-kosher. Now any type of food can be kosher, it just means that the food has to be prepared in accordance with Jewish law. Generally, meat and dairy cannot be eaten together, fruits and vegetables must be inspected for insects, blood must be drained from animals, and certain animals are not permitted at all like predator birds and pork.

Jewish Cuisine Facts and History

There are several distinctive styles of Jewish cuisine which include: Ashkenazi, Sephardi, Mizrahi, Persian, Yemenite, Indian and Latin-American.

Now just like other cultures, the Jewish cuisine menu goes through several changes as new foods were introduced into their diet. For instance, during the Biblical era the Israelites mainly ate bread, cooked grains and legumes with goat and sheep as well as dates, butter, cheese and goat. All of the food was eaten fresh and was determined by the climatic conditions that they lived in.

However, during different periods such as the Roman and Hellenistic periods more spices became available and rice and sugar cane were introduced. Despite going through several changes over the centuries, Jewish cuisine still maintains that foods must be kosher and must be prepared as stated in the Torah.

Jewish Cuisine Menu


Traditional Jewish breakfast that is kosher may include any of the following items.

• Bagels (with cream cheese or salmon)
• Pancakes or latkes (potato pancakes)
• Matzo (bread fried with eggs)
• Shakshuka (eggs with onions, tomatoes and spices like turmeric and chili powder)
• Smoked salmon waffles
• Goat cheese blintzes
• Whole wheat challah with apricots (or other fruit)
• Cereals
• Yogurt
• Fruit
• Waffles/French Toast
• Salads
• Pastries
• Coffee/Tea/Juice
• Kasha (cereal)

It is important to note here that breakfast never includes any type of meat unless it is fish as meat is never mixed with dairy dishes. Pork is completely forbidden for the Jewish who follow kosher dietary restrictions.


• Turkey meatloaf
• Grilled salmon,
• Noodle kugel,
• Miso glazed cod,
• Potato and carrot latkes,
• Matzo balls,
• Salads,
• Chicken soup,
• Dumplings,
• Hot deli sandwiches.
• Borscht (soup).

Snacks: a small selection includes:

• Knishe (pastry with filling like potato, meat, etc.).
• Kichel (cake cookie)
• Blintzes (thin pancakes)
• Cookies,
• Tea/Coffee
• Rugelach (mini croissant pastry)



• Roasted chicken with vegetables,
• Braised short ribs,
• Meatball curry,
• Herb roasted chicken,
• Brisket,
• Matzo balls,
• Fish dishes (Gefilte – most popular)
• Braised lamb shanks,
• Corned beef,
• Pickled herring,
• Kugel (flat casserole)
• Dumplings.


• Apple fritters,
• Cheesecake,
• Macaroons,
• Apple Kuchen (coffee cake),
• Cookies,
• Sufganiyot (jelly filled donut)
• Chocolate/Candy,
• Cupcakes and Muffins,
• Pies and pastries,
• Fruit desserts.




• Hot chocolate,
• Sangria,
• Smoothies,
• Iced coffee,
• Lemonade,
• Apple drinks,
• Hot coffee

Holiday Menus


Holiday that commemorates the rededication of the Holy Temple in Jerusalem during the Maccabean Revolt against the Seleucid Empire. This holiday is observed for eight days and eight nights. Traditional food is often latkes which is a potato pancake made with salt and pepper, eggs, potatoes and flour.


Holiday that commemorates the emancipation of the Israelites from slavery in ancient Egypt. Traditional dishes may include: ratatouille, salmon patties, sweet and sour meatballs, latkes, chocolate cake, chicken soup, vegetable cutlets, veal with peppers, meat loaf and toasted matzo farfel.



Holiday that celebrates the triumph of Queen Esther over Haman. Traditional dishes include: broccoli in white wine, brisket of beef in wine, cherries in rum, cinnamon wine soup and hamentaschen cookies.

Rosh Hashanah:


Holiday that marks the beginning of the new year in the Jewish calendar. Traditional dishes may include: baked apples with almonds and raisins, stuffed veal breast and white bean soup.



It is the seventh day of the Jewish week where many Jewish eat more lavishly, rest, and pray. It is the most important observance and traditional foods may include: chicken soup, challah, meat cholent and kneidelach.


Holiday that celebrates the giving of the 10 Commandments and is a holiday that celebrates the harvest of the first fruits of the year. It is a feast that falls seven weeks after Passover. Traditional foods may include: pumpkin cheesecake, bread, and many dairy dishes.

Other holiday foods may include: butternut squash latkes, matzoh ball soup, noodle kugel, string beans with pickled shallots, brisket, roasted chicken, stew and apple cake.


Most Popular Jewish Dishes


If you’re looking for traditional Jewish dishes that are among the most popular, then definitely consider:

• Challah: is a sweet, golden, eggy bread that is braided to look like it is knotted. It is usually used as rolls on holidays but it can also be used for sandwiches.

• Matzah Ball Soup: is a thin chicken broth soup that comes with matzah balls (dumplings). The matzah balls can be soft and light or firm and heavy and is served with carrot and celery. The dish is served all year long.

• Kugel: is a pudding type dish, but is more of a breaded pudding dish rather than a gelatin dish. It is often served as a side or as a dessert item and can be made with potatoes and eggs or with noodles and fruit.

Holishkes: are cabbage leaves that are stuffed with sweet and sour meatballs. These are usually served on holidays.

• Blintzes: is a thin, flat pancake that is rolled around a filling. They can be filled with mashed potatoes and onions or with cottage cheese. They can also be filled with fruit, apple sauce or sour cream.

Most Used Ingredients

Meat/Fish: Fish that are kosher include: anchovy, bass, cod, carb, dace, flounder, haddock, halibut, hake, kipper, herring, mackerel, perch, mullet, roach, salmon, sardine, sole, trout, tuna, whitebait, and sprat. Meat includes: any animal that has cloven hooves and chews cud, which means cows, goats, sheep and dear are allowed. In terms of fowl, only domestic species of chickens, ducks, geese, and turkey are to be eaten (no predatory/scavenger birds). Finally, fish and seafood: only that which has fins and scales. This means that crabs, shellfish and lobster are NOT to be eaten.

Vegetables: Carrots, onions, potatoes, peas, broccoli, brussel sprouts, cauliflower, asparagus, tomatoes, corn, squash. You may also encounter: celery, leaks, and peppers.

Fruits: Apples, raspberries, blueberries, strawberries, blackberries, bananas, grapes, limes, lemons, pears, oranges, pineapple and melons.

Other: You will come across a lot of spices like turmeric and chili powder as well as nuts like almonds, cashews, peanuts and walnuts.

Travelling Foodies: What to Eat When You Travel to Jewish Communities

If you’re planning on travelling to a Jewish community or to a Jewish home that is indeed orthodox or follows the kosher rules and guidelines, then you must try out some of the traditional food that they make. For instance, having their challah is a must as it is a savory sweet bread that can be used with hot deli sandwiches. Another would be their delicious matzah soup which is a dumpling soup that uses a thin chicken broth. Finally, if you’re looking to try out some authentic desserts then going for a dessert kugel dish or apple cake will always be tasty must have options.



Are you Jewish? Maybe you know some interesting things about kosher food that I forgot to mention?  Please feel free to comment and add your own thoughts on Jewish food.

Lisa Gold

Buddhist Cuisine Facts and History

Respecting Food and Where It Comes From

Food is a fuel source for our bodies and minds. Not only does it give us the energy we need to get through our lives but it provides us with the nourishment to grow and sustain ourselves.

Without it, both our bodies and minds would become exhausted, starved and diminished. Buddhist cuisine is a distinct sub-style of food that emerged within the Buddhist monasteries which traditionally prohibits any and all animal meats.

The reason being is that they follow a no killing rule of any sentient being nor the use of any animal products which includes feathers, milk and leather. In addition to this, alcohol and other intoxicants are forbidden because they may result in the violations of others. Essentially, as a Buddhist it is important to think about where the food has come from, whether you are worthy of consuming it and how the food should be eaten. Food is eaten with the purpose of realizing the way, reaching enlightenment and keeping our bodies healed.

Buddhist Cuisine History

Buddhist cuisine is an East Asian cuisine that was founded around 500 BCE by a Nepalese prince. The prince was to become a king however he wanted to achieve enlightenment so he escaped his palace and wandered throughout India meditating.

When he succeeded with his meditation underneath the sacred fig tree, he then began to teach his disciples about dharma which is the underlying order of nature, life and the cosmos. His teachings heavily influenced India and many subcontinents around it but was heavily campaigned against by the Hindu Brahmins as they did not like that his teachings negated the caste system.

By the 12th Century CE it was almost entirely driven out of India. However, Buddhism has survived in many countries outside of India including: China, Thailand, Japan, Vietnam, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, South Korea, Taiwan and Cambodia. Overall, there are three major branches of Buddhism which include Theravada, Mahayana and Vajrayana.

The Theravada are mendicants who depend on others for their sustenance but must not eat any meat given to them if they were aware of how the beast was slaughtered or were aware that it was specifically prepared for them.

The Mahayana had plenty of land to prepare their own food and lived a strict vegetarian diet in accordance with the no killing rule.

Finally, the Vajrayana will eat meat as they do not attempt to avoid it, as they may not have the luxury of veganism due to their year-round agriculture.


Buddhist Cuisine Menu



• Banana bread,
• Pancakes,
• Waffles,
• Fruit salad,
• Steamed stuffed bitter melon,
• Braised tofu,
• Cabbage wrap,
• Cauliflower in red sauce,
• Eggplant French toast
• Bean curd wrap
• Papaya Bowl



• Tomatoes and lama beans,
• Tofu miso soup,
• Tofu,
• Napa cabbage wraps,
• Sesame bamboo mushroom soup,
• Vegetable stir fry,
• Cucumber veggie chicken cold dish,
• Chinese spinach,
• Pineapple with vege meat chunks,
• Seaweed cheese roll,
• Vegetable melody,
• Gobo cashew soup,
• Basil tofu stir fry,
• Agar Salad,
• Pineapple Salad
• Goji Nagaimo Roots
• Winter melon soup.
• Stuffed tofu.
• Yam noodle salads.
• Miso mash.


• Tomato cabbage,
• Baked vegetables in cream sauce,
• Fried tofu stir fry,
• Curry cauliflower,
• Chestnut pumpkin,
• Fried sesame tofu,
• Vegetarian chicken ball soup,
• Sweet and sour mushrooms,
• Coconut curry stir fry,
• Broccoli baked in cream sauce,
• Steamed tofu with black bean sauce,
• Roaster oyster mushrooms.


Traditional Buddhists don’t eat after mid-day, so if they were to have snacks it would either consist of fruit or of tea as neither are prohibited after meal time. However, non-traditional Buddhists may not follow this as it is dependent on what branch of Buddhism they are a part of.


• Cakes of any kind,
• Sweet breads,
• Coconut puddings,
• Chocolate cashew caramel,
• Vegar chocolate cake,
• Coconut cookies.
• No bake Samoa bites,
• Coconut apple tarts,
• Goat milk yogurt with fruit,
• Chia seed pudding,
• Banana ice cream.


• Chia seed lemonade,
• Rhubarb-lemon mint iced tea,
• Tea,
• Ginger lemonade,
• Water

Holiday Menus



Traditional Buddhist Christmas may include any of the following:

• Vegetarian stir fry’s,
• Baked vegetables with sauces,
• Cakes,
• Chocolates,
• Cookies,
• Wheat meat,
• Braised tofu,
• Tea,
• Wraps


• Any type of fruit dessert,
• Salads,
• Wheat Meat,
• Tofu,
• Stir Fry’s,
• Soups


Most Popular Dishes

• Buddha’s Delight (Vegetable Dish),
• Bean curd wrap,
• Baked broccoli in cream sauce,
• Fried tofu,
• Gobo cashew soup.

Most Used Ingredients:


Meats/Fish: traditional Buddhists do not eat any type of meat or animal products. If, however, you are a part of the Vajrayana, then any type of meat including: fish (cod, salmon, tuna, halibut, haddock, etc.) will be eaten as well as: beef, fowl, pork, etc.

Vegetables: Brussel sprouts, broccoli, legumes, cabbage, celery, tomatoes, beans, mushrooms, eggplants, cauliflower, seaweed, cucumber, pumpkin, squash, peppers, nagaimo root.

Fruits: Strawberries, blueberries, blackberries, pears, peaches, raspberries, apples, melon, bananas, raisins, watermelon, pineapple, grapes, plums, apricots, goji berries, lemons, avocado, papaya

Other: Rice, bread, curry spiced dishes, pasta, wheat meat, tofu, cinnamon, maple syrup, almonds, wheat flour, oat milk, pecans, apple sauce, herbs, salt, baking powder, soy sauce, peanut butter, ketchup, brown sugar, peanuts, walnuts.

Seasonings: White pepper, BBQ sauce, mushroom oyster sauce, soy sauce, rice vinegar, tomato ketchup, sweet flour sauce chili sauce, soy bean sauce, black vinegar, sesame oil.
The above is not a full representation but does represent a relative traditional Buddhist ingredient list.

Travelling Foodies: What to Eat When You Travel to Buddhist Communities

If you are looking to travel to a Buddhist monastery or are looking to experience a different type of diet, then eating dishes that are primarily made out of either vegetables, fruits or wheat meat is the way to go. One dish in particular called Buddha’s delight is a popular well known dish that consists of vegetables in a soy sauce based liquid. Vegetables may include black mushrooms, bamboo fungus, lotus seeds, ginkgo nuts, snow peas and water chestnuts. Other dishes that you may want to try are: stuffed cabbage, chia seed pudding and tofu miso soup.


Are you Buddhist? Maybe you visited Buddhist countries? Please feel free to comment and add your own thoughts on Buddhist ethnic food.

Hui Kong